Dematerialization of Shares for Private Companies in India 2024

Written By:
Team Qapita
May 23, 2024

What is Dematerialization of Shares?

Dematerialization of shares refers to the process of converting physical share certificates into electronic form. This means that instead of holding physical share certificates, shareholders hold their shares in a dematerialized form, which is stored electronically in a demat account.  

Dematerialization of shares has made it easier for investors to buy, sell, and transfer shares, reducing the risks associated with physical certificates such as loss, theft, or damage.

Who does the new requirement for the dematerialization of shares apply to?

Mandatory Dematerialization of Shares for Private Companies:

The Companies (Prospectus and Allotment of Securities) Second Amendment Rules, 2023 mandate that every private company which is not a "small company" as per its audited financial statements on or after March 31, 2023, shall facilitate dematerialization of all its shares within 18 months from the end of its financial year.

A "small company" as defined by the Companies Act, 2013, refers to a company, excluding a public company, with a paid-up capital not exceeding 4 crore rupees or a turnover, which shall not exceed 40 crore rupees.

Therefore, the new dematerialization requirement applies to all private companies in India, excluding those classified as "small companies".

Parties involved in dematerialization of shares for private companies

The process of dematerialization for private companies involves four key parties:

1. Client (the company dematerializing):

The private company is required to convert its physical securities into electronic or dematerialized form.  

2. Depository Participants (DPs):  

These are intermediaries registered with the depositories (NSDL and CDSL) who facilitate the dematerialization process. DPs assist the company in opening a demat account and completing the necessary formalities.

3. Depositories:  

India has two depositories: National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL) and Central Depository Services (India) Limited (CDSL). They maintain electronic records of securities and provide the ISIN (International Securities Identification Number) for the company's shares.

4. Registrar and Transfer Agents (RTAs):  

The company must appoint an RTA to manage the administrative and record-keeping aspects of the securities held in electronic form. The RTA works in coordination with the DP and depository.

Step-by-Step Procedure to the Dematerialization of Shares for Private Companies

The process of dematerialization of shares for private companies is similar to that of public companies, with some additional requirements. Private companies need to comply with the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013, and the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) regulations.

As per the Ministry of Corporate Affairs of India, private companies, excluding small companies and government companies, are mandated to compulsorily dematerialize their securities, including stocks, bonds, debentures, share warrants, and preference shares. This means that private companies will have to issue their securities only in dematerialized form and maintain records of the dematerialized shares.

Step 1: Modification of Articles of Association (AoA)

The first step in the dematerialization process is to amend the company's Articles of Association (AoA) to include provisions for holding shares in dematerialized form. This amendment must be approved by the shareholders through a special resolution.

Step 2: Selecting a Registrar and Transfer Agent (RTA)

The company must appoint a Registrar and Transfer Agent (RTA) to handle the process of dematerialization. The RTA serves as an intermediary between the company, the depositories, and the shareholders, facilitating the conversion of physical shares into electronic form.

Step 3: Acquire International Securities Identification Number (ISIN)

The company needs to obtain an International Securities Identification Number (ISIN) from the National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL) or the Central Depository Services Limited (CDSL). The ISIN is a unique code that identifies the company's securities and is essential for trading and holding shares in dematerialized form.

Step 4: Opening a Demat Account

Shareholders who wish to dematerialize their shares must open a Demat account with a depository participant (DP). The DP acts as an intermediary between the shareholder and the depository, facilitating the conversion of physical shares into electronic form and maintaining the electronic record of the shares.

Step 5: Dematerialization of Existing Shares

Shareholders must submit a Dematerialization Request Form (DRF) to their DP, along with the physical share certificates they wish to dematerialize. The DP will then forward the request to the RTA for processing. Once the RTA verifies and approves the request, the physical share certificates will be converted into electronic form and credited to the shareholder's Demat account.

Step 6: Dematerialization for all Key Stakeholders

Promoters, directors, and key managerial personnel (KMP) of the company must also dematerialize their shareholdings. This process is similar to the one followed by other shareholders, but it may involve additional documentation and scrutiny due to their positions within the company.

Step 7: Regular PAS 6 Reporting

The company is required to submit a half yearly report called PAS 6 to the depositories, providing details of the dematerialized shares and any changes in the shareholding patterns. This report ensures that the depositories maintain accurate and up-to-date records of the company's dematerialized shares.


In conclusion, the dematerialization of shares for private companies in India marks a significant step towards a more efficient and secure share trading environment. Companies can enhance their trading experience, reduce paperwork, and provide an additional layer of safety for investors, by converting physical share certificates into electronic form.

This process not only simplifies share trading but also contributes to the growth and popularity of the share market. With dematerialization, investors can enjoy a more streamlined and secure way of buying, selling, and owning securities, making the share market an even safer and more attractive zone for investment.

How Can Qapita Assist with Dematerialization of Shares?

Benefit from Qapita's comprehensive support for dematerializing shares in India. Our strategic partnerships with multiple RTAs streamline the process, facilitating the generation of ISINs for your company shares.

Experience a seamless transition with our expert documentation support, ensuring a hassle-free journey towards dematerialization. Our dedicated assistance extends to guiding shareholders through the Dematerialization Request Form, providing personalized support every step of the way.

Simplify the complexities and enhance transparency in the dematerialization of shares for private companies in India in 2024 with Qapita's tailored guidance.

Schedule a free demo to know more.

Team Qapita

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